Being stressed by pollution, congestion, over-population, mass migration etcetera, mega city Dhaka has become nearly unlivable but still the trend of mass migration to the city continues unabatedly. Under any circumstances, Dhaka's livability is at stake and the situation is worsening day-by-day due to unplanned as well as over urbanisation.
People from countryside rush towards Dhaka which is the place for employment for all and sundry -- be it a fresh graduate or a businessman. Even floating people find the city as the most beneficial place for earning livelihoods. It is not that living in Dhaka is cheap but still people's first choice is Dhaka in consideration of its numerous benefits such as education, medicare, business, trade, industry.
The rapid process of urbanisation causes a lot of different ecological, economical and social problems and risks.
Once the infrastructural and socio economic conditions were more developed in Dhaka compared to other parts of the country, which made Dhaka the centre of attractions. So, services are becoming inadequate roads more congested due to increasing number of cars and one can easily notice the rising number of pedestrians all over the city. We can recognise a wide range of social standards and social fragmentation because of the different background of the immigrants and a great number of urban poor and their housing areas are often edged out by stronger economic purposes and land use.
Considering the density and the number of inhabitants and also the accelerated development, Dhaka runs the highest risk of man-made and natural disasters. The city has a high rate of consumption of natural resources especially land for new settlement areas, water and energy. The result is an ecological strain on the environment with serious pollution of the air, water and soil.
The priority must be given to slow down the urban growth. Therefore the living conditions and the economic basis in the rural areas must be strengthened to prompt the inhabitants to stay there. Thus it is a vital necessity to promote new forms of cooperation between Dhaka and other parts of the country.
To achieve a proper development of Dhaka, a comprehensive plan is indispensable, that provides guidelines and principle goals for the urban development. For the sake of sustainability, the integration and coordination of urban and rural areas with Dhaka city should be a main principle.
To influence city-dwe11ers' living conditions and economic development, the public authorities have to be involved with producing and managing technical urban infrastructure facilities and services such as roads, transport, electricity, telecommunications, water, sanitation and waste treatment and also social facilities and services in the strategic fields of education and health. However, with the ongoing growth of agglomeration, good governance within Dhaka city becomes highly complex. To shape policy in a right way, it will be necessary to divide agglomeration in manageable territorial areas and to decentralise some responsibilities to the local actors and initiatives.
In many countries, decentralisation of urban area is in progress and forced with great emphasis. The aim of this comprehensive movement is to improve urban living conditions by addressing needs as directly as possible. Decentralisation requires the capacity building for an efficient local-urban management too.
Dhaka's condition is extreme and desperate situation needs desperate solution that is decentralisation. It is the need of the time to adopt a spatial concept with a decentralised structure which is the prerequisite for achieving the ecological, social and economic targets of sustainability and this, eventually, would make the city livable day-by-day.